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КАРГАЛЫ. Т. III. Селище Горный: Археологические материалы. Технология горно-металлургического производства. Археобиологические исследования (275,00 руб.)

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АвторыЧерных Е. Н.
ИздательствоМ.: Языки славянской культуры
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ID225342
АннотацияТретий том Каргалинской серии публикации посвящен введения в оборот феноменальных по своей представительности и богатству материалов с селища позднего бронзового века Горный, бывшего основным объектом изысканий Каргалинской комплексной археологи­ческой экспедиции. Кроме того рассматриваются вопросы технологии горно-металлур­гического производства в эпоху бронзы. Специальное внимание уделяется проблемам археобиологических исследований - археозоологии и палеэтноботаники.
ISBN5-94457-173-X
УДК902/904
ББК63.4(2)
КАРГАЛЫ. Т. III. Селище Горный: Археологические материалы. Технология горно-металлургического производства. Археобиологические исследования : [коллективная монография] / ред. Е. Н. Черных .— Москва : Языки славянской культуры, 2004 .— 321 с. : ил. — ISBN 5-94457-173-X .— URL: https://rucont.ru/efd/225342 (дата обращения: 05.10.2022)

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Каргалы.pdf
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Каргалы.pdf
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KARGALY Volume Ill GORNY SITE: Archaeological materials Mining and metallurgy technology Archaeobiological studies Edited by E. N. Chernykh Moscow: Languages of Slavonic culture 2004
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KAPrAnbl ToM Ill CEJIHIIJ;E rOPHhiH: ApxeoJioruqecKue MaTepuaJILI TexuoJiorun ropuo-MeTaJIJiypruqecKoro npoH3BOJJ:CTBa Apxeo6uoJioruqecKue uccJiet~:osauun ,-.~~CocTaBMTenb "" Hay~HbiM pe.qaKTop E. H. llepHbiX - ! MocKBa: .513hiKH cnaBHHCKoii IcyJibTYIJbi 2004
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OrnaaneHMe Bse)J;eHHe. Cneu.Hci»HKa apxeOJIOrH'IeCKHX MaTepHaJIOB c ropuoro ................................. l5 B.l. euoMeHa.JibHrui uachiii~eHHOCTh cnog apxeonornqecKHMH MaTepHanaMH ............... 15 B.2. KaqecTBeHHhie OTJIHqH}I ............................................................................................. l6 B.3. BepmpHKa:QH}I cne.nos )I(HJHe.neBTeJibHOCTH .............................................................. 16 B.4. KJiaccHonorHqecKHe rpynnhi 6hiTOBOH KepaMHKH ............................................... 26 1.3. XapaKTepHCTHKa Bbi6opKH ......................................................................................... 50 1.4. OpuaMeHTa:QI{}I ........................................................................................................... 51 1.5. OpuaMeHTa.JihHbie KOMnOJH:QHH ................................................................................. 57 1.6. PeJI}ITHBHrui xpouonorl{}l THnos 6hiTOBOH KepaMHKH ................................................. 63 1.6.1. Pacnpe.neneuHe no xpouonorHqecKHM ropH30HTaM H coop~eHI{}IM ............... 63 1.6.2. PacceHsauHe yHK:QHOHa.JihHaB H MOpyH~HOHaJihHO ueonpe.neneHHhie o6pa.J:Qhi co cne,n:aMH o6pa60TKH .............. 90 2.2.4. 0TXO,llbl BblllJlaBKH H nJiaBKH Me,n:H .................................................................... 93 2.3. CTPaTHrpaqmqecKoe H nnauHrpaa.Jhi A .................................................................................................. 94 2.3 .2. MeTaJIJI cy6a.Jhi B-1 ......................................................................................... 96 2.3.3. MeTaJIJI cy6a.Jw B-2 ......................................................................................... 99 2.3.4. MeTaJIJI cy6HqecKoe pacnpe.neneuHe mnaKa ........................ I 02 3.2.1. PanHBJI 4>a3a A .................................................................................................. 102 3.2.2. Cy64>a.Ja B-1 ..................................................................................................... 102
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8 OrnaaneHHe 3.2.3. Cy6$aJa B-2 ..................................................................................................... 104 3.2.4. Cy6$aJa B-3 ..................................................................................................... 105 rna sa 4. MeTaJIJiyprHH MeJJ:H: Hly'leHHe TeXHOJIOI'HH ................................................... 106 4.1. Me,n:HLie MHHepanbi .................................................................................................. 106 4.2. MeTan.nyprHqecKHe wnaKH ...................................................................................... 110 4.3. Me,n:L ......................................................................................................................... 120 4.4. MeTa.JIJIJt:qCCKHe HJ,n:eJuui ......................................................................................... 127 4.4.1. Cy6$aJa B-1 ...................................................... : .............................................. 127 4.4.2. Cy6$aJa B-2 ..................................................................................................... 128 4.4.3. Cy6$aJa B-3 ..................................................................................................... 128 4.5. TexHOJIOfHH MeTannoo6pa6oTKH Ha ropHOM ........................................................... 132 4.6. KpaTKHe BbiBO.ll:bi ...................................................................................................... 133 fJiaBa 5. JIHTeHHLie c(>opMLI .............................................................................................. 134 5 .1. 06mHe cse,n:eHHH ...................................................................................................... 134 5.1.1. MaTepHa.rrLI .li:JIH JIHTeHHbiX aJaA .............................................................................................................. 151 5.4.2. Cy6$aJaB-1 ..................................................................................................... 151 5.4.3. Cy64>a3a B-2 ..................................................................................................... 153 5.4.4. Cy6yHKQHOHaJibHOe Ha3HaqeHHe MOJIOTKOB H MOJIOTOB ...................................... 171 6.4. MonoTKH H MOJIOTLI H3 KaMeHHoro .n;epesa .............................................................. 172 6.5. Tiapa,n:HLie opy,n:HH .................................................................................................... 174 6.6. HaKOBa.JILHH .............................................................................................................. 174 6.7. Py,n:oTepKH .................................................... ; ............................................................ 178 6.8. KaMeHHbiH IIpOTHBOBeC KOJIO,IJ.e3HOfO THIIa .............................................................. 179 6.9. yHKQHOHa.JlbHO Heorrpe,n:eneHHbie HJ,n:eJIHH ........................................................... 181
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OrnaBJieHHe rnasa 7. Apxe0300JIOrH1.feCKHe MaTepHaJibl. .................................................................. 182 7 .1. Mero.n;HKa apxeo3oonorHI.JecKoro HCCJie.n;oaaHHJI ..................................................... 182 7 .1.1. Oroop MaTepHanoa ........................................................................................... 182 7 .1.2. Ou.eHKa TacpOHOMHI.JeCKOrO COCTOHHWI H pa3.n;po6JieHHOCTH MaTepHaJIOB ...................................................................................................... 183 7 .1.3. TaKCOHOM~P~ecKM H,Z:(eHrn$HKai.J.HH ................................................................. 184 7 .1.4. AHaTOMHI.JeCKHe xapaKTepHCTHKH .................................................................... 185 7 .1.5. CTaTHCT~P~eCKHH aHaJIH3 .................................................................................. 186 7.2. ba30Bbie xapaKTepHCTHKH OCTeOJIOr~P~eCKHX MaTepHaJIOB ...................................... 186 7 .2.1. OcTeonorHI.JeCKHe Bbi6opKH H3 coopyxKHoypanbCKOH CTeiiH ............................................ 247 rnasa 9. TeXHOJIOrHH pa3Be)J.OK H ropHbiX Bb1pa60TOK B 6poH30BOM BeKe na Kapranax ....................................................................................................... 249 9 .I. Mero.n;bi pa3ae.n;KH B 6poH30BOM BeKe: KoppeKTHBbi ou:eHOK ................................... 249 9 .1.1. TpYJl.HOCTH «rrepBHI.JHbiX» paJae.n;oK Ha Kapranax ............................................ 251 9.1.2. flOHCKOBaH WaXTa 1103.li;He6poH30BOrO BeKa ..................................................... 251 9 .1.3. 3arronHeHHe waxn1 .......................................................................................... 252 9.1.4. 06 opy,n;HHX )l;Jij{ BCKpblTHH rJIHHHCTOro I.JeXJia ................................................ 255 9.1.5. Kapbep PEB H waxTa DEB: cxo.n;cTBO H pa3JIHI.JHe .......................................... 255 9.1.6. lllaxTbi y,n;ai.JHbie H Hey.n;ai.JHbie ......................................................................... 256 9
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10 Ornasnemt:e 9.2. CaKpaJibHO-MarHqecKHH CMhiCJI Jia6HpHHTa Tpaullleii ............................................ 257 9.2.1. ,z:::{aTHpOBKa YpaHIIlCH ......................................................................................... 258 9.2.2. 3HMOH HJIH JICTOM? ........................................................................................... 259 9.3. fiO.LJ.3eMHbie Bbipa60TKH H opy.D.HH .D.JIH HX npOXO.D.KH ............................................... 259 9.4. 3KcnepHMeHTbl DO CKaJlbHbiM Bbipa60TKaM ............................................................. 261 9.5. llo.n.JeMuag pa6oTa: sonpocbi ocTaiOTCH .................................................................. 263 flpHJJOil\eHHe 1. ropHLIH: paCKOnKH 2002 roJ).a ............................................................... 265 llp1.1. PacKon 6 .............................................................................................................. 265 llp 1.1.1.CYpaTHrpaaJaA: MaJihie iKHJIHIUa ...................................................................................... 277 llp 1.4. Cy6
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Table of contents Introduction. Specific features of the archaeological materials of Gorny site ................ 15 B.1. The incredibly dense concentration of archaeological materials in Gorny cultural layers ................................................................................................. 15 B.2. Qualitative differences ............................................................................................... 16 B.3. Verification of activity indicators ............................................................................... 16 B.4. The technology of production and classification of archaeological materials ........... 18 B.S. Recent literature on Kargaly (cont.) ........................................................................... 18 Chapter 1. Pottery ................................................................................................................. 22 1.1. Household ceramics: common notes .......................................................................... 22 1.2. Classification .............................................................................................................. 23 1.2.1. Principles and methods ....................................................................................... 23 1.2.2. Morphological groups of the household pottery ................................................ 26 1.3. Sampling characteristics ............................................................................................. 50 1.4. Decoration elements ................................................................................................... 51 1.5. Decoration compositions ............................................................................................ 57 1.6. Relative chronology according to the ceramic analysis ............................................. 63 1.6.1. Distribution of pottery fragments according to the chronological phases and structures .......................................................................................... 63 1.6.2. Dispersion zone of one pot's fragments ............................................................. 66 1. 7. General development of the ceramics ........................................................................ 68 1.8. The crucibles ............................................................................................................... 70 1.8.1. General characteristics ........................................................................................ 70 1.8.2. The first group of crucibles ................................................................................. 70 1.8.3. The second group of crucibles ............................................................................ 73 1.8.4. Chronological distribution .................................................................................. 74 1.8.5. The crucibles and metal producing ..................................................................... 74 Chapter 2. Metal and copper artifacts ................................................................................ 76 2.1. General information .................................................................................................... 76 2.2. Functionally undetermined artifacts ........................................................................... 77 2.2.1. Tools and weapons .............................................................................................. 77 2.2.2. Ornaments .......................................................................................................... 87 2.2.3. Functionally undefined artifacts ......................................................................... 90 2.2.4. Metalworking refuse ........................................................................................... 93 2.3. Distribution of metal samples: stratigraphy and plans ............................................... 94 2.3.1. Phase A ............................................................................................................... 94 2.3.2. Sub-phase B-1 .................................................................................................... 96 2.3.3. Sub-phase B-2 .................................................................................................... 99 2.3.4. Sub-phase B-3 .................................................................................................... 99 2.4. Metal: certain results of the investigations ............................................................... 100 Chapter 3. The slag ............................................................................................................. I 0 I 3.1. Slag crushing ............................................................................................................ 101 2*
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12 Table of contents 3.2. Distribution of slag samples: stratigraphy and plans ................................................ 102 3.2.1. PhaseA ............................................................................................................. 102 3.2.2. Sub-phase B-1 .................................................................................................. 102 3.2.3. Sub-phase B-2 .................................................................................................. 104 3.2.4. Sub-phase B-3 .................................................................................................. 105 Chapter 4. Technology of copper metallurgy ................................................................... 106 4.1. Copper minerals ........................................................................................................ 106 4.2. Metallurgical slag .......................................................... : .......................................... 110 4.3. Copper ...................................................................................................................... 120 4.4. Copper artifacts ......................................................................................................... 127 4.4.1. Sub-phase B-1 .................................................................................................. 127 4.4.2. Sub-phase B-2 .................................................................................................. 128 4.4.3. Sub-phase B-3 .................................................................................................. 128 4.5. Metalworking technology at Gomy .......................................................................... 132 4.6. Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 133 Chapter 5. The casting moulds .......................................................................................... 134 5.I. General information .................................................................................................. 134 5.1.1. Stones for casting moulds ................................................................................. 134 5.1.2. Fragments of the unused moulds ...................................................................... 135 5. I .3. Construction ..................................................................................................... 138 5.1.4. Methods ofproducing and casting ................................................................... 138 5.2. The mould's caps ...................................................................................................... I48 5.3. From worked object to tool ...................................................................................... I49 5.4. Distribution of the moulds: stratigraphy and plans .................................................. 151 5.4.1. Phase A ............................................................................................................. I 51 5.4.2. Sub-phase B-1 .................................................................................................. I5I 5.4.3. Sub-phase B-2 .................................................................................................. 153 5.4.4. Sub-phase B-3 .................................................................................................. 154 5.4.5. Distribution of casting moulds: stratigraphy and plans .................................... I 55 5.5. Specific features of the casting moulds of Gorny site .............................................. 155 Chapter 6. The stone artifacts: hammers, anvils, ore mills ............................................ 157 6. I. The main category of artifacts .................................................................................. 157 6.2. The hammers and sledge-hammers .......................................................................... 158 6.2.1. Stones for hammers and sledge-hammers ........................................................ 158 6.2.2. General functions .............................................................................................. 168 6.2.3. Distribution of the hammers and sledge-hammers: stratigraphy and plans ..... 169 6.3. The pebble and boulder puncher tools ...................................................................... I69 6.3. I. The tools' parameters and their relative chronology ........................................ 170 6.3.2. The grooved hammers ...................................................................................... 170 6.3.3. The main functions of these kind of tools ........................................................ 171 6.4. The stone wood hammers and sledge-hammers ....................................................... 172 6.5. The ceremonial tools ................................................................................................ 174
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Table of contents 6.6. The anvils ................................................................................................................. 174 6. 7. The ore mills ............................................................................................................. 178 6.9. The heavy balance weight ........................................................................................ 179 6.8. The functionally undetermined artifacts ................................................................... 181 Chapter 7. Faunal materials .............................................................................................. 182 7.1. Methods ofarchaeozoological studies ...................................................................... 182 7 .1.1. Selection of materials ....................................................................................... 182 7 .1.2. Evaluation of taphonomy and degree of crushing of materials ........................ 183 7 .1.3. Taxonomic identification .................................................................................. 184 7 .1.4. Anatomical characteristics ................................................................................ 185 7.1.5. Statistical analysis ............................................................................................ 186 7 .2. Basic characteristics of the bones ............................................................................. 186 7.2.1. The selection of bones from phase A constructions ......................................... 189 7.2.2. The selection of bones from complex No. 1 (sub-phase B-1) .......................... 195 7.2.3. The selection ofbones from complex No.2 (sub-phase B-1) .......................... 201 7.2.4. The selection of bones from sub-phase B-2layers ........................................... 206 7.2.5. The selection of bones from sub-phase B-3layers ........................................... 207 7.2.6. Faunal remains from the two main periods of the Gorny settlement ............... 209 7.3. Animals in the sacral complexes .............................................................................. 210 7.4. Sex-age groups and morphological specificity of domestic species ......................... 212 7.4.1. Cattle ................................................................................................................ 213 7.4.2. Sheep and goats ................................................................................................ 217 7.4.3. Horses ............................................................................................................... 219 7.4.4. Pigs ................................................................................................................... 220 7.5. Meat consumption at Gorny ..................................................................................... 221 7 .6. Was there stock-breeding at Gorny? ......................................................................... 222 7. 7. Bone artifacts ............................................................................................................ 223 7.8. The bone collection from the «Russian house» (18th century) ................................. 233 7.9 The bone collection from the 2002 field season (excavation No. 6) ....................... 235 7.9.1. Animal bones .................................................................................................... 235 7.9.2. Bone artifacts .................................................................................................... 238 7.9.3. Human remains ................................................................................................. 239 Chapter 8. Archaeobotanical investigations ..................................................................... 240 8.1. Sampling and processing methods ........................................................................... 240 8.2. Results of the analyses of archaeobotanical materials .............................................. 240 8.3. The problem of using dung as a fuel at Gorny ......................................................... 244 8.4. Was there farming in Gorny and in the South-Urals steppe? ................................... 247 Chapter 9. Technology of geological prospecting and mining in Kargaly ..................... 249 9.1. Prospecting methods in the Bronze Age: critical estimates ...................................... 249 9.1.1. Initial prospecting at Kargaly: specific difficulties ........................................... 251 9.1.2. The LBAprospecting shaft in Gorny ............................................................... 251 9.1.3. The filling up of the shaft ................................................................................. 252 13
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14 Table of contents 9.1.4. On the tools for exposing the thick clay cover ................................................. 255 9 .1.5. The EBA open cast and the LBA shaft: similarities and differences ................ 255 9.1.6. «Successful» and «unsuccessful>> shafts .......................................................... 256 9.2. Sacral-magic significance of the labyrinth oftrenches ............................................. 257 9.2.1. Relative chronology of the trenches ................................................................. 258 9.2.2. Summer or winter digging? .............................................................................. 259 9.3. Underground mines and the tools for mining ........................................................... 259 9.4. Experiments on the sandstone mother rock .............................................................. 261 9.5. Underground mining: unsolved questions ................................................................ 263 Appendix 1. Gorny: the 2002 excavation .......................................................................... 265 Ap 1.1. Excavation no. 6 ............................................................................................. 265 Ap 1.1.1. Stratigraphy ............................................................................................ 265 Ap 1.1.2. The main structures and their relative chronological position ............... 268 Ap1.1.3. Archaeological materials ........................................................................ 269 Apl.2. Sub-phase B-1: complex No. 3 ....................................................................... 272 Ap1.2.1. Dwelling No. 49 .......................................................................................... 272 Apl.2.2. Dwelling No. 48 ..................................................................................... 274 Ap1.2.3. Sacral-prospecting trenches .................................................................... 274 Apl.2.4. The traces of the late prospecting in the shaft ........................................ 275 Ap1.3. Phase A: the pit-dwelling ................................................................................ 277 Apl.4. Sub-phase B-2 .................................................................................... ~ ........... 282 Apl.5. Sub-phase B-3 ................................................................................................ 283 Appendix 2. The small series of archaeological artifacts from Gorny ........................... 284 Appendix 3. Geophysical prospecting in field season 2002 ............................................. 288 Appendix 4. 14 Appendix 5. The new 14 C determination of samples from the site Gorny (2002 sampling) ......... 293 C dates of samples from the EBA open cast.. ............................ 295 Appendix 6. Copper smelting experiments at Gorny ...................................................... 298 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 302 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 316 Resume ................................................................................................................................ 317
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